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Sunday, July 26, 2020 | History

5 edition of Vascular Endothelium & Basement Membranes (Advances in Microcirculation) found in the catalog.

Vascular Endothelium & Basement Membranes (Advances in Microcirculation)

B. M. Altura

Vascular Endothelium & Basement Membranes (Advances in Microcirculation)

by B. M. Altura

  • 304 Want to read
  • 3 Currently reading

Published by S. Karger AG (Switzerland) .
Written in English

    Subjects:
  • Life Sciences - Biology - General,
  • Science

  • The Physical Object
    FormatHardcover
    Number of Pages358
    ID Numbers
    Open LibraryOL12929296M
    ISBN 103805530544
    ISBN 109783805530545

      Pulmonary vascular endothelial cells (ECs) line the surface of the lung vasculature and accommodate the various levels of blood flow. Pulmonary endothelium is a critical regulator of vascular homeostasis by inhibiting coagulation of the blood. The ECs bind tissue factor pathway inhibitors (TFPI), modulate hemostasis with opposing effects such as .   The vascular mechanical microenvironment consists of a mixture of spatially and temporally changing mechanical forces. This exposes vascular endothelial cells to both hemodynamic forces (fluid flow, cyclic stretching, lateral pressure) and vessel forces (basement membrane mechanical and topographical properties). The vascular mechanical .

    Basement Membrane / cytology Endothelium, Vascular / metabolism Extracellular Matrix / chemistry Extracellular Matrix / metabolism Gene Expression Regulation Humans Laminin / . The data argue for a dynamic endothelial cell extracellular matrix that presents different molecular information depending on the type of endothelium and/or physiological situation. This review outlines the unique structural and functional features of vascular basement membranes, with focus on the endothelium and the laminin family of.

      In the bone marrow, liver and spleen, the capillaries either have incompletely formed (or completely absent) basement membranes underlying widely spaced endothelial cells. There are usually no gap junctions between these cells and the vessel allows for direct transportation from the vascular lumen to the surrounding cells. The molecular sieve with size- and charge selectivity in ovarian follicles, the so-called blood-follicle barrier (BFB), was examined during follicular development under physiological conditions to reveal ovarian structures responsible for the BFB by.


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Vascular Endothelium & Basement Membranes (Advances in Microcirculation) by B. M. Altura Download PDF EPUB FB2

A critical step during vasculogenesis and other blood vessel assembly events is the development of an endothelial basement membrane matrix. 27,29 –31 The fact that pericytes are recruited into EC-generated vascular guidance tunnels provides insight into how basement membrane matrix deposition between ECs and pericytes may be controlled Cited by: Vascular endothelium and basement membranes (Book, ) [] Get this from a library.

Vascular endothelium and basement membranes. Abstract Vascular basement membrane (VBM) is a thin layer of fibrous extracellular matrix linking endothelium, and collagen type IV (COL IV) is its main composition.

VBM plays a crucial role in anchoring down the endothelium to its Cited by: 3. Endothelium is a single layer of squamous endothelial cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels.

The endothelium forms an interface between circulating blood or lymph in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. Endothelial cells form the barrier between vessels and tissue and control the flow of substances and fluid into and out of a on: Lining of the inner surface of blood.

The basement membrane is a thin, fibrous, non-cellular matrix that separates the lining of an internal or external body surface from underlying connective tissue in metazoans (animals).

This surface may be epithelium (skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, etc.), mesothelium (pleural cavity, peritoneal cavity, pericardial cavity, etc.) and endothelium (blood vessels, lymph MeSH: D Variations may be due to several different factors, including the species and vascular site reported, 56 the preparation and analysis of tissue, 57 or the physiological state of the tissue examined.

58,59 The endothelial basement membrane can also merge with the membranes of pericytes or smooth muscle cells or be absent in areas where. Indeed, over 95% of early micrometastases examined demonstrated vascular cooption with little evidence for isolated neurotropic growth.

This vessel interaction was adhesive in nature implicating the vascular basement membrane (VBM) as the active substrate for tumor cell growth in the brain.

Structurally, the vascular basement membrane consists of two principally different entities, i.e. the endothelial and parenchymal basement membranes, both of main importance for maintaining the integration of BCECs with pericytes and astrocytes.

10,14,22 These three cell types adhere to the basement membrane by specific members of the integrin or dystroglycan. Laminin isoforms in endothelial and perivascular basement membranes.

Cell Adhesion & Migration: Vol. 7, No. 1, pp. Laminins, one of the major functional components of basement membranes, are found underlying endothelium, and encasing pericytes and smooth muscle cells in the vessel wall. Depending on the type of blood vessel (capillary, venule, postcapillary venule, vein or artery) and their maturation state, both the endothelial and mural cell phenotype.

Capillary basement membrane thickening. Thickening of capillary basement membranes is a well-documented lesion of diabetic retinopathy, visible on electron microscopy.

Additional electron microscopic findings include deposition of fibrillar collagen and “Swiss cheese” vacuolization of the otherwise homogenous pattern of basement membrane.

Vascular basement membrane is a complex structure composed of several macromolecules, which interact to form the heterogeneous structure which can be defined as basement membrane. The basement membrane also provides a sheet-like structure to which endothelial cells can closely attach (Bulletti et al., ).

The vascular basement membrane contributes to the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is formed by brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs).

The BCECs receive support from pericytes embedded in the vascular basement membrane and from astrocyte endfeet. The vascular basement membrane forms a three-dimensional protein network. During angiogenesis, matrix metalloproteinases, the enzymes that degrade the capillary basement membrane and extra-cellular matrix, will be increased in order to facilitate endothelial cell migration.

Therefore, angiogenesis is a complex process, and its timely induction is tightly controlled by coordination from multiple factors. c, Basement membrane thickening (collagen type IV) in vascular organoids from a second iPS cell line (IPSC2) cultured in diabetic medium.

Endothelial cells were visualized using anti-CD Basement membranes (BMs) are thin sheets of specialized extracellular matrix that were first identified by transmission electron microscopy as continuous ribbon-like structures adjacent to a subset of cells.

They are evolutionarily ancient structures, being present even in primitive organisms such as sponges and mammals, BMs underlie endothelial and epithelial. Vascular Endothelial Cells. Degradation of Basement Membrane Collagen by Migrating Vascular Endothelial Cells.

Release of Plasminogen Activators by Vascular Endothelial Cells in Response to a Retina‐Derived Substance. Summary. References. Discussion. References. The vascular basement membrane is a structure of highly crosslinked insoluble materials including collagens, laminins, and fibronectin in which endothelial cells are embedded.

This is formed by synthesis and deposition of these substances from both endothelial cells and perivascular cells which is upregulated following contact between these. Local degradation of basement membranes of the parent vessel, usually a venule, by specific enzymes released by the “activated” endothelial cells under the influence of an angiogenic stimulus.

Increase in the number of organelles and pseudopodes of endothelial cells that protrude through the “holes” of basement membrane of the parent. The endothelial basement membrane, composed of laminin and collagen IV strands which self‐assemble to form an independent network crosslinked by perlecans and nidogen, is bound by the endothelial cell through integrins (right lower panel).

Vascular Endothelium Is Well-Situated to Regulate Metabolic Homeostasis. Blood vessels are broadly divided into 2 categories, macrovasculature and microvasculature.

1 The macrovasculature is composed of large vessels, such as arteries and veins, and is responsible for carrying blood toward or away from organs. The microvasculature—small arterioles. Vascular endothelial cells rest on a basement membrane enriched in α4- and α5 laminins.

In the pancreas, microvessels are recruited by islet cell release of VEGF-A. It is reported that the microvascular basement membranes enable insulin gene expression and promote β-islet cell proliferation, exerting their effect through laminin and β1.Although the basement membrane is an integral structure underlying endothelial cells (ECs), few studies, until recently, have been performed to understand its formation in this context.

In this review article, we highlight new data demonstrating a corequirement for ECs and pericytes to properly deposit and assemble vascular basement membranes.